Building record MYO1056 - All Saints Church, North Street

Summary

Church and Anchorage attached. 12th century nave; part of north and south arcades early 13th century; east end rebuilt and chancel chapels added in early 14th century; aisles widened incorporating chancel chapels in early 15th century; nave and aisles extended westwards and tower with spire added in later 15th century; chancel and chancel aisles reroofed in late 15th century; 18th century weathervane added to spire. Restorations by JB and W Atkinson 1866-67, during which south aisle was rebuilt and porch and vestry added; 1908, during which the Anchorage was reconstructed by E Ridsdale Tate; further restoration in 1991 by Peter Marshall, Architects. 7-bay aisled nave and continuous chancel, with embraced tower to west; south porch and vestry. Anchorage attached to south-west corner. Contains two bells which feature on the list of bells of historic significance dating to 1627 and 1640 both founded by William Oldfield.

Location

Grid reference Centred SE 6005 5175 (33m by 31m)
Map sheet SE65SW
Unitary Authority City of York, North Yorkshire

Map

Type and Period (21)

Full Description

Church and Anchorage attached. C12 nave; part of north and south arcades early C13; east end rebuilt and chancel chapels added in early C14; aisles widened incorporating chancel chapels in early C15; nave and aisles extended westwards and tower with spire added in later C15; chancel and chancel aisles reroofed in late C15; C18 weathervane added to spire. Restorations by JB and W Atkinson 1866-67, during which south aisle was rebuilt and porch and vestry added; 1908, during which the Anchorage was reconstructed by E Ridsdale Tate; further restoration in 1991 by Peter Marshall, Architects.

MATERIALS: magnesian limestone ashlar and squared rubble stone incorporating a number of incised coffin lids; small area of red brick in random bond at west end of north side; parallel roofs tiled, with stone coped gables. Anchorage of shuttered concrete, with planted timber-framing and concrete infilling; roof part tile, part concrete, part asphalt.

PLAN: 7-bay aisled nave and continuous chancel, with embraced tower to west; south porch and vestry. Anchorage attached to south-west corner.

EXTERIOR: triple-gabled east end, centre part flanked by dwarf buttresses, south gable on chamfered plinth; each has pointed window of three foiled lights, the centre one with Decorated tracery, the outer ones with reticulated tracery. To north of the north window is a small niche with a 4-centred head. North side partly on chamfered plinth, with three weathered buttresses, largely restored; entrance in 6th bay from east, in chamfered 2-centred doorway with plain hoodmould. Easternmost window pointed with reticulated tracery reset from east end window, the head cut back by later re-roofing. Remaining windows are square-headed, of 2 or 3 cinquefoiled lights, in renewed hollow-chamfered surrounds.

Rebuilt south side incorporates several large fragments on incised coffin lids. Windows are of 3 cinquefoiled lights with chamfered surrounds and mullions, beneath square heads and hoodmoulds. Porch entered from east side through 2-centred chamfered doorway beneath coved hoodmould.

At west end, 3-stage tower and spire, flanked by gabled ends of north and south aisles. Tower ground stage square on plan; upper stages octagonal, weathering at base of alternate faces forming bases of slim buttresses. Openwork parapet at base of octagonal spire surmounted by C18 brass weathercock. On tower ground stage, west window is of three cinquefoiled lights in 2-centred head, with, above, an ogee-arched trefoil-headed niche. Second and third stages have windows to each cardinal face: on second stage, windows are of 2 lights in flattened 2-centred head; those on third stage, transomed, of 2 lights.

West windows to north and south aisles are 2-centred, of 3 cinque-foiled lights with one tier of panel tracery. In all parts of the church, much window tracery has been renewed. Anchorage: one-and-a-half storeys; 1 bay north front with pent half bay to west. Entrance is C20 board door to south of pent bay. Full bay raised on arch-braced concrete deck, jettied on north side with 4-light oriel window and coved eaves surmounted by embattled cresting. Half bay has single light windows to north and west, and bargeboarded eaves. All windows are trefoil-headed square lattice casements, those in oriel with carved panel tracery and risers carved with roses and foliage.

INTERIOR: chancel: double-chamfered jambs of east window original, incorporating carved demifigure at each side, at springing point of inner chamfer. In chancel north wall, square-headed aumbry of paired trefoil-headed niches. In south-east corner 2 bays of C12 wall arcade survive, of trefoil-headed niches on attached shafts with bell capitals, in 2-centred arches separated by continuous band of dogtooth moulding.

North and south arcades of 2-centred arches, either single or double chamfered, some chamfers slight, some broad. Piers and responds mainly octagonal, the easterly with square abaci, hollow-chamfered underneath, the westerly with octagonal capitals and square abaci with crudely broached angle stops. Three piers earlier. One in north arcade is monolithic Roman column shaft re-used with roll-moulded base and square abacus, hollow-chamfered on under side; second one in north arcade is cylindrical with necking, bell capital carved with nailhead moulding and chamfered round abacus, on double roll-moulded base. In south arcade, one pier is cylindrical with necking, hollow-chamfered capital and square abacus, on water-holding, double roll-moulded base. Third pier from east in north arcade has tonsured demifigure corbel supporting a polygonal shelf on west face. Tower arches are hollow-chamfered and die into octagonal and half-octagonal piers and responds on square bases with crude broach stops. In north wall beneath tower is small pointed chamfered doorway leading to newel stair, corbelled out over north-west corner.

South doorway within porch is pointed arch of one continuous order, roll-moulded on each side of band of nailhead moulding. In west wall of south aisle are two square chamfered openings, one blocked, connecting with former anchorage. Roofs. Chancel and three eastern bays of north and south aisles have 6 trusses of arch-braced moulded principals on angel-corbelled hammerbeams, with moulded collars and purlins, and carved bosses. Wall plates finished with embattled cresting. In north aisle, three corbels, wall posts and chamfered wall plate survive from earlier roof. STAINED

GLASS: the Church is notable for containing the finest collection of medieval glass in York, mostly C15, outside York Minster (qv). FITTINGS: include: chancel screens by E Ridsdale Tate, of 1906. Hexagonal pulpit with painted decoration, dated Anno Dom. 1675. Medieval octagonal bowl font on octagonal stem with moulded foot. C18 Benefaction, Commandment, Credence and Mayoral Boards. Sculpture: by tower south pier, carved female head with traces of paint; round stoup on square block. Carvings: misericorde in Chancel, carved with pelican in piety, and the monogram and arms of John Gilyot, Rector 1467-72/3; image of King David playing the harp, possibly from C18 reredos.

MONUMENTS: include a cartouche to John Etty, d.1709, on south aisle wall. Floor slab variously to John Stoddart, Rector, inducted March 1593, to Joan Stoddart, d.1599; to James, son of Thomas Pennyman, d.1699, and Esther, wife, 1745. Black marble floor slab to Joshua Witton, d.1674. Brasses include: black lettered plate to William Stockton, d.1471, and Robert Colynson, d.1458, both Lord Mayors of York, and to Isabella, widow of Robert Colynson, second wife of William Stockton, set in floor slab to John Wardall; plate inscribed to Thomas Clerk, d.1482, and wife Margaret, set in marble floor slab with Evangelists' symbols (one missing). Wall plates to Thomas Askwith, d.1609, and wife Anne; and to Charles Townley, d.1712.

(Bartholomew City Guides: Hutchinson J and Palliser DM: York: Edinburgh: 1980-: 228-230; City of York: RCHME: South-west of the Ouse: HMSO: 1972-: 3-10).

Listing NGR: SE6005251758

Derived from English Heritage LB download dated: 22/08/2005

Contains two bells which feature on the list of bells of historic significance dating to 1627 and 1640 both founded by William Oldfield. CARE No. 43/202. The 8 bells in current ring date to 1920 (John Taylor & Co) 1989 (same) and 1999 (Whitechapel).

NMR Information
Full description
(SE 60055176) All Saints' Church (C of E) (NAT)

1. NORTH STREET 5343 Church of All Saints
SE 6051 NW 16/28 14.6.54
SE 6051 NW 28/28

2. Early English C13 and C14. Decorated and Perpendicular. The fabric incorporates some re-used Roman stones. Nave with aisles and embraced octagonal west tower of mid C15 with slender spire.
C15 hammer beam roof. Pulpit 1675. Monumental brass to Thomas Atkinson (1642) and several earlier brasses. Outstanding painted glass, mainly C14, and second only in importance.

(RCHM Vol III, Monument 4)

Sources
1 Ordnance Survey Map OS 1:2500 1963.
2 List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. pp 259 City of York, June 1983

613515 Architectural Survey Investigation by RCHME/EH Architectural Survey
1382031 Evaluation ALL SAINTS CHURCH, NORTH STREET
1439379 Evaluation ALL SAINTS' CHURCH HALL, NORTH STREET
1624560 Dendrochronological Survey ALL SAINTS CHURCH, NORTH STREET

Related Archives/Objects
BF060201 ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, YORK File of material relating to a site or building. This material has not yet been fully catalogued. Copyright, date, and quantity information for this record may be incomplete or inaccurate.

NMR06 NMR Measured Drawings This material has not yet been fully catalogued. As a result copyright and date information may be incomplete or inaccurate.

OP08129 A view of the east window of All Saints Church, North Street

OP08141 A view showing detail of stained glass in the 'Bede Window' of All Saints Church, North Street, York

'Ecclesiastical Buildings', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, Volume 3, South west (London, 1972), pp. 3-48. Monument 4

Parish Church of All Saints, stands in a churchyard of some extent on the W. side of North Street; it is built partly of rubble, partly of magnesian limestone ashlar, and has roofs of modern tile.
The church, which later belonged to the Priory of Holy Trinity in Micklegate, is not mentioned in the foundation charter of c. 1090–1100. It is listed among the possessions of the Priory in a letter of Pope Alexander III (1166–79) and in the charter of Henry II (1175–88) (EYC, vi, 76–7, 84–5). The original church was a simple rectangular cell, a local type found in the late 11th century, to which a S. aisle was added in the later 12th century.

In the 13th century it was enlarged as a cruciform building with aisleless Chancel and aisled Nave of three bays. The E. end was partly rebuilt in the first half of the 14th century when chapels flanking the chancel were added. The N. Chapel was built in c. 1324/5 when John Benge, chaplain, founded at the altar of St. Mary a chantry for the souls of John and Hugh Benge and their ancestors (CPR, 1324–7, 31). The E. window of the chancel, of which the contemporary glass is now in the E. window of the N. aisle, dates from c. 1320–40. The E. window of the S. Chapel, probably the choir of St. Katherine mentioned in a will of 1406 (Raine, 253), has reticulated tracery of c. 1340. Much work, including the widening of the Aisles, was being carried out between c. 1390 and c. 1410. In 1394 Richard Byrd of North Street, tanner, left 6s. 8d. to the new fabric of the church (Shaw, 83).

In 1407 William Vescy, mercer, left 100s. for improving and ornamenting the choir and founded, at the altar of St. Thomas the Martyr, a chantry which was licensed in 1410 (CPR, 1408–13, 162). This altar was probably in the N. aisle by the third window from the E., which had a figure of St. Thomas. An inventory made in 1409/10, after the death of Hugh Grantham, mason, records that he owed John Ebirston 6s. 8d. for stone for a window in All Saints, North Street, and that he was owed 40s. for the window. Grantham was also owed £4 by John Thornton and William Pontefract; this may connect John Thornton with glass that would on stylistic grounds be associated with him. In 1410 Adam del Bank, dyer, founded a chantry at the altar of St. Nicholas in the S. aisle and left 10 marks to repair the altar of St. James in the same aisle and the stonework of a window there (Raine, 254). In 1429 Reginald Bawtre, merchant, left 1005. to the fabric of a new glass window in the N. aisle, and glazing of the windows in both aisles continued until c. 1440 .

The church was extended W. by two bays in the second quarter or middle of the 15th century with a Tower in the W. bay of the nave, and had been entirely re-roofed by c. 1475. Mention of an anchoress in 1430 (Raine, 254) suggests that the S. extension of the S. aisle was already complete. The W. piers of the nave arcades both have a rare mason's mark found on other early 15th-century buildings in York. In 1467 Thomas Howson, Vicar, desired to be buried opposite the image of Our Lord crucified, which stood above the central window of the W. front. In 1482 Margaret Clerk gave 6s. 8d. towards the consecration of a bell in the tower (Raine, 254). In 1444 John Sharpe, tile maker, left 3s. 4d. to the fabric and 500 'thack tile'. In 1448 Richard Toone, tanner, left one fother of lead for the roof, if begun within a few years.

The arms of Gilliot on a boss on the chancel roof refer to John Gilyot, Rector 1467–1472/3 (Borthwick Inst., Register of George Neville, ff. 15, 155); they occur again on a misericorde. A major restoration, including the rebuilding of the S. wall, was carried out by J. B. and W. Atkinson in 1866–7 (APS Dictionary of Architecture, viii (1892), York, 5; Borthwick Inst., Faculty Papers, 1866/1) at a cost of £1,600. Further work was carried out in 1884 and in 1907–8. The plan prepared by J. W. Tate in 1866 and redrawn by E. R. Tate in 1908, shows the chancel one bay further E. than at present (C. Kerry, 'History and Antiquities of All Saints' Church, North Street, York', in AASRP, ix, pt. 1 (1867), 57–69; P. J. Shaw, All Hallows, North Street (1908)).

Architectural Description—The church is an aisled quadrilateral without structural division between chancel and nave; the tower at the W. end of the nave is set within the quadrilateral. The present division between chancel and nave is modern. The plan prepared in 1866 and redrawn in 1908 shows the nave extending one bay further E. as in the mediaeval arrangement.

The Chancel and Nave (79½ ft. by 12 ft.) have the base of a 13th-century E. wall of small blocks of ashlar flanked by angle buttresses of which those to the E. were refaced in 1867 and those to the N. and S. now show only as slight projections from the added E. walls of the aisles. Internally the E. wall is plastered but the base of one bay of a 13th-century wall arcade is visible on the S.; it consists of a two-centred arch with moulded label containing a heavy trefoiled head on attached shafts with bell caps. On the S. it abuts on a similar bay in the S. wall; between the bays is a band of dog-tooth ornament. The E. window, an insertion of c. 1320–40, has original jambs, but the mullions are recut or modern. Externally the head has a wavemould, which merges into the chamfered jambs; the label has been trimmed back. Internally all members are chamfered; at springing level on either side is a small demi-figure with long hair and bonnet and holding a spray.

The lower part of the N. wall has exposed rubble incorporating an aumbry at the E. end. The first arch of the N. arcade is two-centred, of one chamfered order and built of freestone. The E. respond and the first pier each have a chamfered cap with octagonal shaft; the respond retains part of a chamfered base and the pier has a moulded octagonal base on a square plinth. Original tooling and masons' marks like those on the piers opposite indicate an early 15th-century date. The second pier has a hollow-chamfered abacus cut off to E. and W. and with claw tooling probably of c. 1200; it has a crudely moulded cap and bold necking. The column is monolithic Roman shaft reused with a top course of fine gritstone. The second and third arches are identical, with small voussoirs and of one large chamfered order. Masons' marks identical with those in the arcade opposite suggest a date in the early 15th century, perhaps incorporating reused material. The third pier has a square abacus with octagonal capital and similar base with bold angle stops. A corbel on the W. face has a demifigure like those in the E. window. The pier, like that opposite, is probably of the 14th century.

The fourth pier has a circular chamfered abacus and bell cap with nail-head ornament and a bold necking. The base has two flattened rolls on a square plinth. Cap and base are in magnesian limestone and have 13th-century tooling. The fourth and fifth arches are two-centred, of two chamfered orders, the fifth arch being higher than the fourth. Both have claw tooling of Early English character and of the early 13th century contemporary with the pier. Large springing courses at the E. end of the fourth arch indicate a 14th-century modification; the fifth arch was modified at the W. end when a pier replaced the earlier W. wall. The fifth pier resembles the third. A mason's mark associates it with the pier opposite and other York work of the first half of the 15th century. The contemporary sixth arch is higher than those to the E., of two chamfered orders and with very large voussoirs which bond into the pier of the tower.

The E. respond and the first two piers of the S. arcade have square abaci with plain octagonal caps and octagonal shafts. The second pier has a moulded base set on an older plinth; it has finer detail than the first. The first and second arches have large voussoirs. The piers have masons' marks that associate them with the first pier on the N. and indicate an early 15th-century date. The third pier resembles that opposite and is probably of the 14th century; the plinth is set awkwardly on a larger and older one. The third arch is higher than those to the E.; it has very slight chamfers, stopped to the piers, of one square order and is probably of the 14th century. The fourth pier, of the late 12th century, has a square abacus, hollow-chamfered on the lower edge and swept inwards to a round necking; the whole is one piece of gritstone. The top course and the three lowest courses are of brown gritstone with haphazard tooling; the other courses are of magnesian limestone finely axed. There is a round water-holding base and a bold oblong plinth projecting to N. and S. The fourth and fifth arches, like the third, are each of one square order with a slight chamfer. The fifth pier and fifth arch resemble those opposite but a straight joint on the N. side suggests that the arch is earlier than the pier of the tower.

The North Aisle (13½ ft. wide) has an E. wall with large blocks of ashlar below and smaller, less regular pieces above. The first bay of the N. wall is similar with a chamfered plinth. The E. window of c. 1340 has three ogee-headed trefoiled lights and reticulated tracery. A similar window in the first bay of the N. wall had the head cut off, presumably when the present 15th-century roof replaced an earlier one running N. and S. To N. of the E. window externally is a small niche with four-centred head, blocked with brick before 1908. The second, third and fourth bays each have a window of three cinque-foiled lights under a square head; the window in the fifth bay is of two lights. Much of the walling is restored but the masonry with large blocks at the base and a chamfered plinth is original, of the 15th century. W. of the fifth bay is a 15th-century three-stage buttress with oversailing plinth. The sixth bay is of ashlar in small blocks with a two-centred doorway, probably inserted as there is brick on either side. The seventh bay sets back at a straight joint; the base is of large ashlar with very fine joints, the upper part of brick. The W. wall is of good magnesian limestone and has a boldly moulded plinth. The W. window has three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery. The South Aisle (15 ft. to 16 ft. wide) has an E. wall of the 14th century incorporating some very large blocks of magnesian limestone at the base. The heavily restored E. window has three trefoiled lights and reticulated tracery.

The S. wall was entirely rebuilt in 1867. The present S. doorway in the sixth bay was formerly between the second and third windows; it was widened in 1908. It is of the 13th century, and has a two-centred head and continuous reveals with a band of nail-head ornament between two rolls. Much mediaeval stone, including many coffin lids, was used in the rebuild. A modern porch and vestry mask the sixth and seventh bays. The W. wall is of one build with the rest of the W. end; the three-light window has vertical tracery. At the S. end internally is a small oblong opening with chamfered reveals; beyond is an archway with a four-centred head. High up in the wall is another small opening like the first. All three were probably associated with the cell of the anchoress mentioned in 1430.

The Tower (10 ft. square) is of three stages surmounted by a spire, in all 120 ft. high. The two-centred tower arch of two chamfered orders springs without capitals from two octagonal piers. The lower N. and S. arches of two hollow-chamfered orders merge into the piers; on the W. sides the inner orders form responds with square bases and bold stops. A doorway with chamfered reveals at the N. end of the W. wall leads to a newel stair, which is corbelled out above. Outside, above the W. window, is a small niche, now with ogee trefoiled head, but originally a two-light window. The second stage is octagonal with weathered angles and a two-light window of 15th-century type in each of the cardinal faces. The third stage, also octagonal, has a tall two-light transomed window in each cardinal face. Above the third stage is an openwork parapet with three lights to each side. The octagonal spire is of ashlar with the window heads and mullions largely renewed.

The timber Roofs of the chancel and chancel aisles are each of five bays. The trusses have moulded principals with collars and hammer beams, with arched braces between. The hammer beams are carved as figures of angels. There is a moulded collar purlin and a single moulded purlin on each side. There are carved bosses under the collar and side purlins; the arched braces of the chancel have foliated spandrels. The chancel roof timbers are heavier than those of the aisles and in general the carvings in the N. aisle are better than those in the chancel; those in the S. aisle are rather crude. The angels are generally represented winged and with flowing hair. They are shown playing musical instruments or holding emblems or, in three instances, a church or shrine. Many of the wings and other details are missing or damaged. The bosses include human and animal heads, grotesques, and foliage. The two E. bosses in the centre of the chancel portray Christ, bearded, with head dress and a cord round the brow, and an angel holding a shield with the arms of Gilliot.

The N. aisle of the nave is covered with a barrel vault of plaster with 19th-century cased ties forming four bays. Above the N. nave arcade three stone corbels, wall posts and a chamfered wall plate of the mediaeval roof remain; the wall plate stops short over the fifth post from the E., where the original nave ended.

Fittings—Aumbry: in chancel in N. wall, with two trefoiled openings under square head, mediaeval. The church plan of 1866 (Shaw, opp. 14) shows two other aumbries, both in N. aisle: at E. end of the N. wall, and under third N. window where an altar of St. Thomas the Martyr stood.

Bells: three; (1) 'Soli Deo Gloria 1640', (2) 'God send vs all the blisse of heaven Anno D(omi)ni 1627', both probably by William Oldfield; (3) small sanctus bell with 'ihc' (G. Benson, The Bells of the Ancient Churches of York (1885), 10).

Benefactors' Tables: two, both in N. aisle, on N. wall, large panels with round pediments and bold moulded frames; entries now indecipherable but see Shaw, 70–1, (1) to E., probably made 1764 ('Painting and Lettering new Benefaction Table ...' with a reference to Widow Wade's gift—Church Wardens' Accounts in Shaw, 69), (2) to W., perhaps made in 1764, relettered in 1804, among gifts recorded is Samuel Harsnett, Archbishop of York, 1630, silver chalice and cover with his Arms.

Bracket: on N. arcade, on W. of third pier, supported on small figure with close-fitting tunic and tonsure, 14th-century.

Brasses: in S. aisle of chancel,
(1) rectangular plate with inscription in black letter 'Orate sp(ec)ialiter pro a(n)i(m)abus Will(el)mi Stokton et Rob(er)ti Colynson quondam maior(um) ciuitatis Ebor. & Isabelle vxoris eoru(n)dem quor(um)a(n)i(m)ab(us) propicietur deus Amen' (William Stockton, Lord Mayor 1446, d. 1471; married secondly Isabella, widow of Robert Colynson, Lord Mayor 1457, d. 1458); set in large freestone slab commemorating John Wardall; W. of (1) at entrance to aisle

(2)oblong plate inscribed 'Oret q(ui)sq(ue) speciali(ter) p(er)t(ra)nsie(n)s p(ro)a(n)i(m)ab(us) Tho(m)e Clerk quo(n)da(m) cl(er)ici ciuitatis Ebor. & toci(us) com(munitatis) & Margar(e)te vx(oris) q(u)i obieru(n)t xvj dieb(us) ffebr. & Marcij A(nn)o do(min)i Moccccolxxxijo q(u)or(um) a(n)i(m)ab(us) p(ro)piciet(ur) d(eu)s Amen' (Thomas Clerk, clericus, free 1449; Freemen, 1, 170), and Evangelists' symbols (N.E. for St. Mark missing), set in small marble slab. On same slab, indent for brass

(3) Thomas Atkinson, 1642, now fixed on wall of N. aisle, lettered in capitals and also inscribed 'Vixi dum volui, volui dum Christe volebas. Mortuus et vivus sum moriorq(ue) tuus' (Thomas, tanner, son of Henry Atkinson, tanner, 1589; Freemen, ii, 32).

In S. aisle, on S. wall,

(4) large oblong plate with shield-of-arms of Askwith differenced with a crescent and inscription to Thomas Askwith (Sheriff 1592), 1609, and wife Anne; below (4),

(5) oblong plate, Charles Towneley, 1712.

Indents: in N. aisle, (1) oblong, in grey marble; (2) small, in tapered coffin lid of freestone; W. of (2), (3) similar, in coffin lid; at entrance to chancel, (4) in marble slab, and (5) oblong, in worn stone; in S. aisle (6) for figure and inscription plate together, in marble slab.

Chairs: three; (1) with straight back with two shaped and carved horizontal members, turned front legs and rail, 17th-century; (2) similar but broader and heavier, probably reproduction; (3) (Plate 44), early 18th-century.

Chest (of drawers): in S. aisle, of oak, with two drawers above two recesses with fielded-panelled doors and all with contemporary brass handles, late 18th-century.

Coffins and Coffin Lids (see also Brasses and Indents, Indents (2) and (3)) In N. chancel aisle,

(1) freestone, tapered, with incised cross, 14th-century (perhaps of Margaret Etton (1391) or William Meburn (1394), both of whom wished to be buried before altar of Blessed Virgin Mary. In S. aisle, at E. end

(2) freestone, with incised foliated cross and a chalice below. In tower, against W. wall,

(3) thick lid with foliated cross and multi-stepped base

(4) with foliated cross, 13th-century.

In porch, (5) top of small freestone lid with foliated cross; (6) part of lid with large foliated cross in relief in round recess; (7) complete lid with simple cross, hatchet by cross shaft; (8) part of decayed lid with foliated cross; (9) upper part of lid with simple foliated cross; (10) lid with two crosses, bow and arrow under one and sword under other. Lids (5), (10) found in S. wall in 1867.

Outside, (11)–(15) built into S. wall; W. of fourth window, (11) lower part of cross with stepped foot; under fourth window, (12) part of cross; under same window and to W., (13) part of lid with stepped bottom foot to cross; near E. side of fifth window, (14) piece of coffin lid with black letter inscription; under same window, (15) incised shaft of cross; built into S. wall of porch, (16) stone with part of one incised cross shaft; to W. of church, (17) stone coffin, tapered and with shaping for head, lidless; all 13th or 14th-century. Font: plain octagonal bowl curving inwards to octagonal shaft resting on moulded base, bowl with mediaeval tooling, shaft and plinth with modern tooling, base perhaps reused 15th-century capital, steps and cover modern.

Glass (described from sill of window upwards and from spectator's left to right in each range of panels):

In chancel, E. window, I, Lower range, (a) kneeling figures of Nicholas Blackburn junior (Lord Mayor 1429, d. 1448) and his wife Margaret (d. 1454) beneath shields bearing letter 'B' and arms of Blackburn differenced with mullet; (b) seated Trinity; (c) kneeling figures of Nicholas Blackburn senior (Lord Mayor 1412, d. 1432) and his wife Margaret (d. 1435), beneath shields bearing 'B' and arms of Blackburn. Inscriptions in part original but greatly falsified in 1844. Main range, glass mostly original, (a) St. John Baptist (Plate 104) bearing Agnus Dei on book; (b) St. Anne (Frontispiece), teaching the Virgin to read in a book inscribed 'D(omi)ne exaudi or(ati)onem mea(m) aurib(us) p(er)cipe ob(secre)ti(onem meam)' (Psalm cxliii, 1); (c) St. Christopher (Plate 104), bearing the Infant Christ, round his head a scroll inscribed 'Cristofori d(omi)n(u)s sedeo qui crimina tollo'. Glass originally in second window in N. wall; date probably between 1412 and 1428; moved by 1846, restored in 1844 by Wailes of Newcastle, who supplied in new glass most of lower part of window and all tracery lights; cleaned and releaded 1966.

In N. Aisle, E. window, II. Lower range: (a) Annunciation (Plate 102), much restored; (b) Nativity, much restored; (c) Christ rising from the tomb, angel and soldiers original. Upper range: (a) Adoration of the Magi, largely original; (b) Crucifixion, restored except for figure of St. John; (c) Coronation of the Virgin, largely original (Plate 102); tall canopies at heads of main lights, including geometrical traceries, and borders largely of old glass (Plate 107); tracery lights almost entirely 19th-century but some of background of oak leaves and part of figure of St. Michael in topmost light original. Glass originally in E. window of chancel, dating from c. 1320–40, the earliest in the church, moved to present position by 1846, restored 1844 by Wailes, releaded 1877, cleaned 1967.

N. wall, first window from E., III. At base of each light a panel containing three kneeling figures of donors, all looking to E.; inscriptions now lost formerly recorded the names of Roger Henrison of Ulleskelf, freeman, 1401, and Abel de Hesyl, living in parish in 1327 (YASRS, lxxiv (1929), 168), chamberlain 1329–30, and bailiff 1336–7 (YASRS, lxxxiii (1932), 192). Above, portrayal in individual panels (from l to r, upwards) of the signs of the end of the world as narrated in the 14th-century poem, 'The Pricke of Conscience' (ed. R. Morris (Berlin, 1863), 129–31), though the inscriptions beneath the panels differ from the text (restorations below from Henry Johnston's (fn. 4) record of the window in 1670): (1) Rising of the Sea, '[Ye first day fourty] cubetes [certain Ye see sall] ryse vp [abowen ilka mountayne]'; (2) Subsiding of the Sea, 'Ye seconde day ye see sall be so lawe [uneth] men sall it cee'; (3) The Waters return to their former level, 'Ye iij day yt sall be playne And stand as yt was agayne'; (4) Fishes rise out of the Sea (Plate 108), '[Ye fforth day] fisches sal mak[e a roring Hideus & hevy] to mannes [heryng]'; (5) The Sea on fire, 'Ye fift day ye sea sall bryn And all ye waters that my ryn'; (6) Bloody dew on Trees, 'Ye sext day sall [herbes &] trees Wyth blody dropes ... grysely bees'; (7) Earthquakes (Plate 108), 'Ye seventh day howses mon fall Castels and towres and ilk a wall'; (8) Rocks and stones consumed, '[Ye viij day] ye roches & stanes [Sall bryn] togeder all at anes'; (9) Earth noises everywhere, '[Ye ix day] erth dyn [sall be Severally in ilk [contry]'; (10) Earth level again, '[Ye tende day for [to] neven Erthe sall be playne & even'; (11) Men come out of holes, '[Ye xj day] sall men come owte [Of their] holes & wende a bowte'; (12) Dead men's bones arise, 'Ye xij day sal dede mens banes Be sumen sett & ryse all at anes'; (13) Stars fall from Heaven (Plate 103) 'Ye thirtend day suthe sall Stevyns fra the heuen fall'; (14) Death of all living (Plate 103) 'Ye xiiij day all yat liues yan Sall dy bathe chylde man & woman;' (15) Universal Fire, 'Ye xv day yus sall betyde Ye werlde sall bryn on ilk a syde'. In the Tracery lights: (W.) reception of the Blessed by St. Peter; (E.) damned dragged by demons into hell; in topmost light, fragments of seated Majesty recorded in 1670. Glass in original position, almost certainly by John Thornton of Coventry, and donors' names suggest early 15th-century; restored 1861 by J. W. Knowles of York, releaded 1877, cleaned 1966.

N. wall, second Window, IV. At base, in E. and W. lights, panels showing donors, the former in 1670 in a S. window (? second), the latter of Reginald Bawtre (d. 1429) formerly in next window W.; in middle light, two shallow arches, presumably from original canopies (see below). In main panels, six of the Corporal Acts of Mercy (Plates 111–13). In lower range: (1) Clothing the Naked; (2) Visiting the Sick; (3) Relieving those in Prison. In upper range: (4) Feeding the Hungry; (5) Giving drink to the Thirsty; (6) Entertaining the Stranger. Main Canopies, not belonging, perhaps slightly later than main panels (Plate 107). Glass (excepting main canopies) originally in fifth N. window, of two lights, implying three panels in each light; probably dating from between 1410 and 1435; former arrangement included figure of Nicholas Blackburn and undifferenced arms of Blackburn, probably indicative of memorial to the father of Nicholas Blackburn senior (d. 1432), namely Nicholas Blackburn of Richmond, senior, freeman, 1396. Present arrangement of 1846 or earlier, when presumably canopies were changed for height; restored by J. W. Knowles 1861, releaded 1877 and 1966.

N. wall, third Window, V. Three large figures: St. Thomas the Apostle, with scroll inscribed 'D(omi)n(u)s meus et deus meus'; Christ bearing cross-staff with pennon, with scroll inscribed 'Thoma [ten]dite manu(m) manu(m) i(n) latus meu(m) qui no(n) viderunt'; archbishop, probably St. Thomas of Canterbury, whose altar was in this bay in 1407. Borders include niches containing small figures of prophets (Plate 110); canopies with pinnacled turrets with pairs of figures. Reginald Bawtre (see foregoing) bequeathed £5 in 1429 (Shaw, 90). Glass releaded 1877; after exchanges, figures restored to original positions during cleaning and releading 1966.

N. wall, fourth Window, VI. In lowest range: arms of (1) John Alcock (1430–1500), bishop of Ely; (2) France Modern and England quarterly, mutilated and remodelled; (3) Beauchamp. In middle range: (4), (6) roundels; (5) arms perhaps of Percy, inserted 1966 (in E. window of chancel in 1659: BM, Lansdowne MS. 919, f. 14v.). In top range: arms of (7) Luttrell (?); (8) (unidentified 1); (9) (unidentified 2)—(8), (9) said to have come from Winchester. Some patterned background quarries and canopies, 15th-century. All of plain glass in 1730 (Gent, 163); by 1877, when releaded, containing heraldry from E. window of N. aisle, transfer having probably been made c. 1845 at restoration by Wailes; again releaded and extensively rearranged 1966.

N. wall, fifth window, VII. In main lights, tops only of elaborate canopies, 15th-century (for rest of original glass, see N. wall, second window, IV).

In S. Aisle, E. Window, VIII. Glass including remains of original glazing, c. 1340, drastically restored by Wailes 1844. Lower range: (1) female donor; (2) the Agony, Christ kneeling before the Cup; (3) female donor. Upper range: (4) St. Mary; (5) Crucifixion; (6) St. John. The main panels set in background of quarries within wide borders, an unusually early example of such treatment; middle light with border of castles and cups, and outer lights with vine scrolls; quarries, some original, with oak sprays. Medallions containing angels and grotesque figures playing musical instruments in upper parts of main lights and in tracery.

S. wall, first window, IX. At foot, in side lights, groups of kneeling donors: E., priest, civilian and woman, scroll inscribed 'libera nos' and, over the second, a shield with 'R' impaling a bend, recorded in 17th century as James Baguley, Rector (1413–40), and Robert Chapman (Free, 1423) and wife (the arms of Baguley of Baguley survived in 1659); W., woman between two men. In main lights: (1) St. Michael in plate armour, with scroll inscribed 'laudantes a(n)i(m)as suscipe [san]cta Trinitas'; face stolen 1842 and replaced in plain glass; (2) arms of Whytehead, perhaps old, reset 1861; (3) St. John the Evangelist (Plate 105) in richly embroidered garment powdered with letters 'J' and 'M', with scroll inscribed 'benedictus sit sermo oris tui'. Borders and canopies of side lights original. Probably the original glazing of 1425–40 (between 1846 and 1966 the figure of St. Michael was in E. light of the third N. window); restored by J. W. Knowles 1861, at expense of rector Robert Whytehead, cleaned, releaded 1965–6. (At base of window inscription recording the work of 1861.)

S. wall, second window, X. The original glazing was probably that now in the fourth S. window and two groups of donors below; of the latter that from the E. light is now in the E. light of the second N. window; in the W. light the group included a man and two women with an inscription to Richard Killingholme (Free 1397, d. 1451) and wives Joan (d. 1436) and Margaret (see Floor Slabs (15)).

S. wall, third window, XI. The Nine Orders of Angels. (The following description starts from the top and reads from left to right, range by range, downwards.) In cusped head of each light, three square quarries set diagonally and each within a sun. Top range: (i) Seraph leading archbishop, cardinal and bishop, inscribed above '[Sera]phyn amore [arden]tes [et d(eum circumamb)ulantes];' (ii) Cherub holding book leading doctors and clerks, inscribed above '[Cherubyn (jus)] scient[es] et recte dispone[n]tes'; (iii) Throne leading group of civilians in enriched and furred robes, formerly inscribed '[Throni......sub (iugan)tes]'. Middle range: (iv) Domination bearing sword leading emperor, king and pope, inscribed above 'D(omi)nac(i)ones humilit(er)d(omi)nant[es et b]enigne castiga(ntes)'; (v) Principality bearing cross and sceptre, leading noblemen and bishop, inscribed above '[Principatus] bonis succure(n)tes p[ro in] ferio[ribus o]r[dinantes]'; (vi) Power, in plate armour and holding staff bearing banner of the sun, leading group of clergy(?) and a woman, inscribed above '[Pote]stat[es (e celo) egre]dientes [malignos succumbentes]'. Lowest range: (vii) Virtue bearing spear, leading group of well-dressed men and a woman, inscribed above '[Virt]utes [(mira)cula fa(cientes deum)ita] reuelantes'; (viii) Archangel in cap and holding trumpet, leading group of men, one of whom bears a metal-shod spade, inscribed above '[Archangeli mortales (om)nes] deo [(conducen)tes]'; (ix) Angel in deacon's robe and holding staff, leading three men, one wearing glasses, two women and child, inscribed above '[Angeli] mestos consolantes [diu]ina [annunciantes]'. Such of the glass as is ancient is part of the original glazing of this window; it was complete, apart from slight damage to inscriptions, when drawn by Henry Johnston (p. xxxii) in 1670 (Bodleian, MS. Top. Yorks. C14, f. 96) and still recognizable in 1730 (Gent, 163). Serious damage occurred later. In 1965 the glass was releaded and restored according to Johnston's drawing.

S. wall, fourth window, XII. In main range, under original canopies: (i) St. James (?), wearing skin robe, head by Wailes; (ii) Crowned Virgin, standing with Child; (iii) Mass of St. Gregory; the saint, shown as archbishop with nimbus, holds the Host and adores the half-length figure of Christ emerging from the tomb, on missal quotation from Canon 'Simili modo p(os)tquam cenatum est accipiens et hunc p(re)clarum' and on scroll proceeding from head of Christ 'Accipe hoc care me(us) p(ro) qui(bus)cu(mqu)e pecieris impetrabis'. Glass of c. 1440 originally in second S. window but by 1730 moved to fifth S. window. Cleaned, rearranged and releaded, and many fragments from other windows incorporated to fill lower parts, 1966.

Images: In N. aisle: (1) in fine white limestone, head and shoulders of woman with traces of blue paint on undergarment and red on outer garment, perhaps 15th-century; (2) Nottingham alabaster carving of Resurrection (Plate 39) with traces of gilding and red paint, 15th-century, set in 19th-century wooden frame; (3) priest pouring wine into chalice, carved oak figure with traces of colour, probably mediaeval, face decayed; (4) King David, carved in soft wood, heavily stained, possibly from 18th-century reredos; (5) St. Lucy (?), figure of woman with sword through throat, much restored.

Inscriptions and Scratchings: for masons' marks, p. v. Lord Mayors' Table, in N. aisle long panel with square panel above, both with moulded frames and, at top, third square panel with round pediment, with two maces in saltire and 'G.R.', in top panel and below in oval frames arms of York and following names: Chas. Parrot, Lord Mayor 1723; Thos. Kilby, Lord Mayor 1784; Ino. Kilby 1804; Sir Ino. Simpson, Lord Mayor 1836.

Monuments and Floor slabs. Monuments: on S. wall, between third and fourth windows:
(1) John Etty, 1707/8, carved cartouche, inscription, scarcely legible, recorded as 'Nigh to this lyeth John Etty, Carpenter, who By the strength of his own genius and application had acquired great knowledge of Mathematicks especially Geometry and Architecture in all its parts, far beyond any of his Contemporaries in this City, who died the 28th of Jan. 1709 Aged 75. His Art was great, his Industry no less What one projected, th'other brought to pass'. (Etty was buried 30 January 1708);

Between fourth and fifth windows: (2) Margaret Pennington, 1753, freestone tablet.

Floor slabs: all of freestone except where otherwise stated. In N. aisle:
(1) Joan Stoddart, 1599, inscribed in ligatured capitals; James, son of Thomas Pennyman, D.D., 1699, Esther, wife, 1745, on same slab in script; and 'Iohn Stoddart· clerke / Parson · of · this Rectory · induct here of Marche 1593' in small incised compartment in lower corner;
(2) Joshua Witton, 1674, black marble, with arms of Witton impaling Thornton;
(3) Richard Wilson, 1742, Elizabeth, widow, 1766;
(4) John Rothum, 1390 (will proved 1 May 1390; Shaw, 45);
(5) '[Orate] p(ro) a(n)i(m)a Will(el)mi L[on]disdall de [Ebor tanner et pro animabus El]ene et Alicie uxor(um) ei(us) a(nn)o d(omi)ni MoCCCCo [lxxx] septemo', slab in four pieces (William Lonesdale, barker, Free 1454 (Freemen, 1, 175); will proved 4 March 1487/8 (Wills, vol. v, f. 325));
(6) 'Orate pro a(n)i(m)a Ioh(ann)is de Coupland civis et tannator' (John Coupeland, barker, Free 1425 (Freemen, 1, 138); will proved 8 June 1469 (Wills, vol. iv, f. 135));
(7) Ann Dawson, 1730, Ann Pick and Susannah Cass, 1780, granddaughters;
(8) 'D.D.', small stone with large initials.

In nave:
(9) Mary Mason, 1718/19;
(10) Mary Milner, 1783, George, husband, 1789. In S. aisle:
(11) Thomas de Kyllyngwyke (Free 1360; living 1381) and wife Juliana, upper half of fine slab with intricate cross-head and part of shaft, black-letter inscription 'hic · iacent · thomas · de [K]yllyngwke · quondam [ci]uis ebor · et Juliana uxor eiusde(m) q(uo)r(um) a(n)imab(us) p(ro)picie(tur) d(eu)s am(en)'; slab palimpsest, on under side a fulling-bat and some shears (Shaw, 45);
(12) John de Wardalle (John de Weredale, barker, Free 1355 (Freemen, 1, 50); will proved 30 Dec. 1395 (Wills, vol. 1, f. 90);
(13) Anna Clarke, 1795, John, husband, 1800;
(14) John Bawtrie [1411] (succentor to the Vicars Choral 1388 (Shaw, 44); will proved 24 April 1411 (Wills, Dean and Chapter, vol. 1, f. 157. Minster Library));
(15) Richard de Killingholme and Joan, Margaret his wives (his will proved 11 June 1451 (Wills, vol. ii, f. 223), black-letter inscription, now mostly indecipherable, 'Orate pro animabus Ricardi Killingholme et Johanne et Margarite uxorum eius' (Shaw, 47);
(16) Sarah Grainger, 1825, William, husband, 1830;
(17) Elizabeth Harrison, 1772, Alexander and Richard, sons;
(18) Susannah Clarke, 1788, Sarah Clarke, 1792;
(19) Ann Harrison, relict of James, 1792;
(20) Elizabeth Harrison, 1762, James Harrison, 1771.

Plate includes: cup given by Samuel Harsnett, Archbishop of York, 1630, and stand paten, with arms of See of York impaling Harsnett, both with York mark with date letter 'Z' in a pointed shield (1630/1) and maker's stamp 'T.W.' for Thomas Waite, goldsmith of York, Free 1613 (Freemen, 1, 62); paten with a Glory, given by William Orfeur, with York mark for 1782/3 and makers' stamp for John Hampston and John Prince, and two flagons, also given by William Orfeur, each with arms of Orfeur of Cumberland, York mark of 1781/2 and makers' stamp as before; alms dish, given in 1698 by Thomas Simpson (see T. M. Fallow and H. B. McCall, Yorkshire Church Plate, 1 (1912), 6–8; and Shaw, 55 et seq.).

Pulpit: of oak, hexagonal, panels with painted figures on pedestals in moulded panels on five sides, of Hope with anchor, Our Lady with Infant Christ for Charity, Faith holding cup, a woman, and Peace holding doves, and, on frieze, 'and how shall they preach except they be sent', on lower base member, 'Anno Dom. 1675', set on modern stone base. Reredos: between first and second N. windows, war memorial made of carved enrichment probably from early 18th-century reredos. Mr. Etty (probably William, son of the John Etty buried in 1708/9) was paid £8 in 1710 for making and setting up a reredos and Mr. Graime received 10s. 6d. for painting a dove on it (Shaw, 67); noted in 1857 as 'altar piece of oak with pilasters of the Ionic order and gilt capitals, (Sheahan and Whellan, 1, 504).

Royal Arms (?): formerly at W. end, large panel with moulded frame and shaped top, destroyed c. 1962; in 1764, the king's arms were renewed and varnished (Churchwardens' Accounts, in Shaw, 69).

Stall: one only remaining, misericorde carved with pelican in piety flanked, on left, by letters 'GIM', for John Gilyot, Master (of Arts), on right, by arms of Gilliot, probably presented by John Gilyot, rector 1467–72/3. Stoup: by N. tower pier small round stoup on square block. Tables of the Creed etc.: In N. aisle E. wall, (1) Commandments, in existence c. 1730, but battlementing probably c. 1860. In S. aisle, W. wall, (2) Creed and Lord's Prayer, similar to (1).

Tiles: with impressed patterns and dark brown, yellow and green glazes, mediaeval, found 1867, said to be in Yorkshire Museum (Shaw, 16).

Wand: of mahogany with silver head and silver band.

Weather-vane: on spire, elongated cock cut from flat brass sheet, with open beak, flared tail and applied eye; payment to churchwardens, 1759, for 'brass weathercock, Flemish brass for the same, gilding same' (Shaw, 69).

Miscellanea: Stones—by N. tower pier, (i) voussoir with chevron and paterae on under-surface, perhaps from chancel arch or arcade c. 1150; (ii) large moulded voussoir, late 13th-century; (iii) large nook-shaft capital, 13th-century; (iv) piece of window tracery with cusp. Table, small, frame and top of soft wood, mainly 17th-century, with two consoles, early 18th-century, and some tracery, possibly mediaeval.


NMR, NMR data (Unpublished document). SYO2214.

RCHME, 1972, RCHME City of York Volume III South-west of the Ouse (Monograph). SYO64.

YAT, 2015, All Saints Church, North Street (Unpublished document). SYO1762.

Sources/Archives (3)

  • --- Unpublished document: YAT. 2015. All Saints Church, North Street.
  • --- Unpublished document: NMR. NMR data.
  • --- Monograph: RCHME. 1972. RCHME City of York Volume III South-west of the Ouse.

Protected Status/Designation

Related Monuments/Buildings (1)

Related Events/Activities (6)

Record last edited

May 12 2020 5:07PM

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