By 410, the Roman army had been withdrawn to defend Rome. In the mid-ninth century, the Vikings were raiding the Northumbrian coast north of Eoforwic. They captured the York in 867, made it their capital (Jorvik) and covered the ruined Roman walls with massive earth ramparts. These were later extended to include the suburbs.
The Marygate area was known as Earlsburh – the Earl’s residence – which comprised a fortified residential complex for the Earls of Northumbria. This complex was based on the Roman fortress annex and later defined the St Mary’s Abbey Precinct.
There is scant archaeological evidence of Anglian York. The 'Anglian' Tower in Museum Gardens may actually date to the late Roman period.